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Injects and Expectations

Evaluating security posture in OpenBAS is to confront events (aka Injects) with Expectations.


Threats are the results of actions by threat actors, and a combination of intent, capability and opportunity. In OpenBAS, simulating threats and their attack capabilities involves executing injects targeting players and assets.

Injects can be technical, emulating action attackers might take on an endpoint, and non-technical, representing interactions with players or impactful contextual events during a crisis (such as media inquiries by phone following a data breach).

Caldera inject definition form

Email inject definition form


Each Inject is associated with Expectations. Expectations outline the anticipated outcomes from security systems and teams in response to attacker actions or contextual events.

Expectations can be about:

  • Prevention: ensuring that the security posture can prevent the attacker's actions.
  • Detection: ensuring that the security posture can detect the attacker's actions.
  • Human response: ensuring that teams react appropriately according to defined security processes.

The collection and concatenation of expectations' results, broken down per type, allows to assess the security posture against a threat context. This provides insights to identify areas for improvement.